Natural Resource of Bankura.
        Natural Resource        
Natural Resource At a Glance

The area covered by Natural Resources lies between, 22 degree 46' to 23 degree 38'N latitude and between 86 degree 36' & 87 degree 46'E longitude. It covers an area of 687124 sq. km.


The district has five hills.

Biharinath is the highest hill of the district (1481 Ft.) near Saltora with a beautiful temple of Lord Parswanath & Lokeswar Vagawan Bishnu. At the foot of the hill near temple a small tank measuring 0.5 hec. can be accommodate with facilities for recreation of the touring people.

Susunia the second highest hill (1442 Ft.) with three small caves Marang Chery, Bharatpur & Beer cave. One of the most important historical inscriptions is a place to see. The hill is quite popular as the only rock-climbing spots of the district. This is also an important tourist spot for the people who visits to see the natural spring, 'Dhara'.

Koro Hill (400 Ft ) situated near Gangajalghati with a peaceful temple at the top..

Masak & Lady Hill (112 Ft), near Khatra are two very beautiful tourist spot.



The Drainage of the district is mainly controlled by Damodar, the Dwarakeswar and the Kangsabati river along with their network of tributaries. They have in general south easterly flow. The courses of the principal rivers are approximately parallel to each other. Damodar (89.6Km.) river rises in hilly country of Palamau District of Chhotonagpur  and before it touches the Bankura District , it receives the water of many smaller hill streams including those of the Barakar, its Principal tributary . The Dwarakeswar flows approximately through the middle of the district and divides it into two halves. It rises in the adjoining Purulia district, flows in a south-easterly  course and enters Bankura District . The Silabati (56Km.), Popularly known as silai is the largest tributary of Dwarakeswar, The Joypanda (27 Mile) is the Principal tributary of the Silabati. The Kangsabati on the Kasai is the third largest river in the district, which rises in the hilly terrain of Jhalda block in the adjoining district of Purulia and enters Bankura district in Khatra block.Therefore it flows south easterly for a distance of about 56 Km. Across the southern part of the district and enters Midnapur district at the south east corner. Also some other rivers &/or tributaries, like Gandheswari, Sali(46 Mile), Arkasha, Birai (30Km.), Bodai (16 Km.) etc plays an important role of the districts irrigation. All the rivers are seasonal, hence the district is drought prone.

Dams / Reservoirs

Kangsabati Dam: The largest dam of the district

Sali Dam : Situated near Gangajalghati, provide irrigation facility to local farmers.

List of Bandh/Artficial Water Reservoir :-



Jamuna Bandh [43 Hec.]


Krishna Bandh [ 32 Hec.]


Lalbandh [ 30 Hec. ]


Kalindi Bandh [ 13 Hec. ]


Shyam Bandh [ 7.5 Hec. ]


Poka Bandh [ 7 Hec. ]


Gantait Bandh [ 4 Hec. ]



Manj Bandh



Samudra Bandh [ 25 Hec. ]



Jamuna Bandh



Danna Bandh



Raj Bandh



Sitala Bandh


Krishna Bandh



Mayer Dighi Bandh


Bankura is literally enriched with the minerals like Coal, Copper, Tungsten, Cayanide, Cheoline, Biotite, Talk, Red Oxide, Felsper, Lead, and Mica etc. But unfortunately, no proper step has been taken yet to uncover this huge amount of property under deep-delved earth. As a result, having all the potential of being an industrially developed belt, Bankura remain an underdeveloped and neglected district of West Bengal.

    Coal: The prime mineral of the district is coal. Noteworthy the coal mines are situated at Saltora, Mejhia, Barjora and Gangajalghati area. Only Mejhia holds 10 coal mines. Quantity of coal estimated to be present in Bankura is 11 million ton(G.S.I.) throughout an area of 33.5 Square Km.Coal of this field belong to high volatile, high ash, non-cocking types with moisture between 4.5 and 6.0% including bands ash percentage between 32 and 40 and expand ash up to 35%. The calorific values vary between 4320 and 52.50. Thickness including bands and partings is seen to attain a figure as high as 8.33m. The occurrence of seams at shallow depth and the suitability of high ash coal for thermal power plant proposal in Bankura district makes this field exploitable now. In Mejhia, the proved-reserve is 13.14 million tones and the indicated reserve being 197.37 million tones according to the Geological Survey of India.

    Copper: The district has a deposit of Copper at Damdi, Mukutmanipur, Khatra, Sarong, Nilgiri and Narayanpur. Near Kangsaboti Dam a 2 Km. long ridge of copper has been found. 

    Tungsten: It's a rare metal with vast demand in India and other countries. Chendapathar and Pora pahar have the only deposit of this metal in the whole state.

    Cayanite: This is another valuable mineral used in heater, high temperature instruments etc. At Balarampur (Near Mukutmanipur) a huge amount of deposit (20 Km, long) has been found.

    Cheoline: An excessive deposit of Cheoline or China-clay can be found at Jalahari Pahar, Dhatara, Malti, Thakurdungry etc. and in many places of Taldangra PS. A number of good deposits of china clay occur within latitudes 22046’ and 22034’ and longitudes 86030’ and 87029’. Two types of deposits have been reported, one associated with the Archaeans and the other associated with tertiaries.

    Deposits associated with the Archaeans:

    v Kharidungri (22057.5’:86048.5’) Jhariakocha (22047’: 86049’) Peripathar (22058’: 86048’) areas: The deposits are about 45 Kms. from the Bankura Rly. Station and are connected with it by a motorable road. Clay occurrences are recorded near the fault zone marked by fault breccia in the hillocks north east of Bagjabra (22057’:86047’), south east of Peripathar and north of Jhariakocha. The clay is white coloured with stains of yellow and pink and is gritty.

    v The clay near Bagjabra is cream white in colour containing about 60% grit. It has been reported to be suitable for pottery industry after washing. The kharidungri clay in the middle portion of this zone is cream white in colour, hard, non-gritty and phuyllitic, having a poor plasticity. The reserve estimated so far from these areas over one million tones.

    v Beriathol (23030’: 8701’) - Dhatala (23029’: 86059’) - Ghanaban (23031’: 87003’) areas: Clay pockets of more than 1.52m in thickness are found near Beriathol village which is about 16 Km. from Raniganj and 6.4 Km. north of Kusthalia. The clays have probably been formed by decomposition of feldspars of anorthosites. The clay is slightly gritty, high plastic and pale cream to pale buff in colour. A reserve of about 0.32 million tonnes have roughly been assessed so far. It may be used as filler and also for pottery industry after proper treatment.

    v The Dhatla clay is dull white and moderately plastic and fired colour at 14500C is light green colour with brown specks. Fired shrinkage is 16%. Clay also has been located in the north and east of Ghanaban.

    v Manipur (23005’: 87000’): Clay beds of 1.22-1.52 m thickness under an overburden of 2.74 to 4m occur 800 m northeast of Manipur village, which is about 23 Km. from Bankura. The colour is pale white, fired colour-light grey. Total reserve estimated is about 0.59 million tonnes. It has been reported that this clay when blended with Kharidungri type of clay (50:50) yields a perfect white burning product suitable for any type of white ware including porcelin.

    v Siarbada (23008’: 87002’): Clay occur under an overburden of about 1 m of laterite and latiritic pebbles, about 400 m east of the village Siarbada which is about 23 Km from Bankura. The clay is pale buff, non-gritty, soft and highly plastic, fired colour-light grey, shrinkage-36%. It may be suitable for stoneware terracotta.

    v Tilasuli: A pocket deposit has been found to the south and SSE of Tilasuli village under a varying thickness of lateritic overburden. The clay is hard, non-gritty and highly plastic. It is pale pink to pale cream in colour, fired colour light grey to brick red. This clay appears suitable for use in pottery and also for stoneware and terracotta.

    v Bhanda (23004’: 87002’) - Beldangra (23004’: 87001’) - Paryandang (23003’: 87000’) - Nutungram (23002’: 87000’) : These are thick deposit off colour clays. The clays are red, yellow, grey and white in colour. The top portions are generally stained yellow, brown, red and pink. The colour and quality of clays improved at depth. Total reserve estimated is about 9.13 million tonnes of low-grade variety.

    v Raipur (22047’: 86057’) - Hariharganj (22049’: 86055’) areas: The kaolinised pegmatites occur to the north-west and NNW of the old fort of the Hariharganj, south of Panari village. The clay beds varying in thickness from 2-6 m, contain intercalation of sand partings. These have formed by alternation of granite and pegmatites. The Hariharganj clay is non-gritty, yellowish white, fired colour white. This clay may be used in the manufacture of stoneware and terracotta. Reserve of clay in Raipur-Hariharganj area is 3.15 million tones.

    v Radhamadav - Kunjagarh (22049’: 86056’) : The clay of this area occurs as intercalation of sand partings and have been formed by alteration of granite and pegmetites. It is heavily stained and gritty near the surface but is white at a depth of 1.5-3 m. This clean clay could be used for making earth ware, stoneware, sanitary-ware and low tension insulators provided it is blended with at least 25% of fat or more plastic clays to make it workable. Total reserve estimated about 3.75 million tonnes.

    v Dalembhija (22054’: 86056’) : This clay occurs at 800 m ESE and southeast of Dalembhija village which is about 56 Km from Bankura. The clays occurring, as pockets under a lateritic cover of 1-2.4 m are associated with weathered and laterised mica-schist. At places ferruginous bands are found within the clays. The clays have been formed by kaolinisation of sericitic phyllite and other rocks. This clay is slightly sandy and reddish white in colour. This clay is suitable for all types of white wares including bone china. Total reserve is about 4.47 million tonnes.

    v Tipam (22057’: 86058’) - Lakhyatapal area: The clay bands 60 cms. to 1 m thick occur in pockets over an area, 91.4 m long and 13.7-41.2 m wide, under 60 cm-1.2m thick overburden of lateritic soil near a small nala about 400 m S.E. of Tipam village which is about 53 Km from Bankura. The clay is stained, cream coloured, has good plasticity and its colour when fired at 12500 C is cream. It appears suitable for use in potteries, but the deposit is small.

    Deposits associated with Territories.

    Dhunara (23026’: 87015’) Khair Kanali (23017’30”: 8700’00”) areas: White lithomargic type of clay with an exposed thickness of 1.22 to 3.2 m and a laterite capping of 2.13-2.43 m has been found in the nala cutting west of the village Dhunara which is about 3 km from Belboni. The grayish clay occur 400 m west of the village Khair Kanali.

    The Dhunara clay is dull grayish white with good plasticity. It takes maroon brown colour at 12500C with 14% shrinkage and fair vitrification. It appears suitable for pottery making. The Khairkanali clay may be suitable for stoneware and terracotta manufacture.

    Kanchanpur (23023’: 87013’) Jambedia (23023’: 87016’) area: China clay has been found at a depth of 2.44 m in two tanks in the village Kanchanpur about 10 Km north of Beliatore and 13 Km SW of Durgapur Ghat. It is also reported that large quantity of yellowish clay is available further east, near Jambedia on the Baliator-Durgapur Ghat road, and the industries like tiles, pipe and potteries may utilize these clays.

    Mica:  Bankura is one of the three districts of West Bengal in which Mica is available. Almost 100 numbers of pegmatite have been found in Khatra, Indpur, Bankura Town, Gangajalghati and Jilimily though most of them are in the form of either small shaped sheets or powdered.

    Biotite: Biotite is another metal almost alike mica. This mineral can only be found excessively in this district throughout West Bengal. It's a multiferiously useful metal. It has been found in Karanjora, Dantkigora, Itadangra, Gourangadihi near Khatra Sub-division and at Mankanaly of Bankura.

    Talc: This is one of the valuable mineral of  Bankura. It's a very soft mineral used in making Talcum Powder. Ruder and Matgoda of this district is enriched with Talc.

MapClick to view Mineral Geology Map.



      The variety of trees, shrubs and creepers are noteworthy in the territory of Bankura. though the dense forests of the past are no more and many shrubs are almost extinct, nevertheless, the flora which are still left may bring about an all round good for the suffering of humanity.
      The hills like Susunia, Biharinath, and its surroundings, areas like deep forest zones of Ranibandh, Khatra, Sonamkhi etc. are covered with lots of natural, rare and herbal plants. The trees are not only used as raw material for paper & tobacco industries  or making furniture and used as fuel by local residents but also important for their medical uses.
      The flora species inside the forest are of most characteristic varieties like Sal, Bahera, Piasal, Kend, Palash, Mango, Jam, Haritaki, Sisu (Indian rosewood), Neem ( Margora Tree), Siris ( Parorot tree), Amlaki (Embeli), Bel (Wood-apple), Arjun, Teak, Aswatha, Mahua, Babla, Kadam, Akanda, Kuchila (Nux-vomika), Boan, Ata (Sugar-apple) etc.
      Besides there are creepers &/or shrubs like Basak, Shatmuli, Bera, Kalmegh, Anantmul, Bantulsi, Thankuni, Kantiikari, Kulekhara, Somraj and Hastikarna etc.